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Human smugglers operate as 'independent traders'

last modified Feb 02, 2018 01:44 PM

Dr Paolo Campana's recently published research shows no “Mafia-like” monopoly of routes from Africa into Europe via the Mediterranean. Instead, myriad independent smugglers compete in open markets that have emerged at every stage of the journey.

You can read more about this research here.

Dr Campana's article is published in the European Journal of Criminology.